English Essay on War of Independence

English Essay on War of Independence

English Essay on "War of Independence"

War of Independence

The people of Indo-Pakistan against the British rule in 1857 was not a spontaneous reaction of alien rule but the eruption of the volcano of discontent that had kept smouldering for about a century. The causes of the War of Independence were political, economical, social, religious and military. The English East India Company got strongly implanted in the Sub-continent after its historic victory over Nawab of Bengal in the Battle of Plassey fought in 1757. Soon afterwards in 1764 the British recorded another important triumph in the Battle of Buxar. This time the English defeated the combined forces of Mir Qasim, Nawab of Oudh and the Mughal Emperor.educationsight.blogspot.com This victory further brightened the prospects of the Company in the country. Later on through skilful diplomacy the British continued their policy of expansion. By the end of the first half of the 19th century they succeeded in removing from their way the main hurdles of the lion of Mysore Tipu Sultan, the Marathas, the Sikhs and the state of Oudh. As a result territorial limits of the British Empire increased at a tremendous pace. By 1857, that is about a hundred years after the battle of Plassey the frontiers of the British territory included provinces like Bengal, Bihar, Oudh, Maysore, Maharashtra, Sindh, Punjab, Kashmir and North West Frontier. W. Hastings (1773-85), Lord Cornwallis (1786-93), Lord Wellesley (1798-1805) and Dalhousie (1848-56) were great annexationists. They annexed many states.

Doctrine of Lapse: Lord Dalhousie applied Doctrine of Lapse for the expansion of the British Empire. According to this doctrine the rulers of the states were not allowed to adopt sons. As a result their states were annexed when they died without issues. Lord Dalhousie annexed many states through Doctrine of Lapse which created a great sense of insecurity among the princes and the general public. They became suspicious of the British policies. The intensions of the British rulers are clear from the statement of Sir Charles Napier:

Annoyance of rulers of State: The policy of ruthless expansion adopted by the British created a lot of bitterness. Lord Dalhousie left no stone unturned for the expansion of the English territory. He annexed states on the grounds of Doctrine of lapse and misgovernment. As such the rulers of the affected states like Sindh, Punjab, Jhansi, and Oudh became sworn enemies of the Company. Nama Sahib the adopted son of Peshwa Baji Rao was refused the pension of 80,000 pounds annually. The state of Oudh was annexed and no consideration was shown for the unflinching loyalty of the ruling house of Oudh to the British Government. In fact the annexation of Oudh was nothing short of gross violation of national faith. According to Sir Henry Lawence,

“To the same point that British interference with that province has been as prejudicial to its court and people as it has been disgraceful to the British name”. Confiscation of Estates: The nobles were granted large estates by past rulers which served as a source of their honourable living. The British Government reversed this policy and confiscated thousand of such estates. As a result numberless affected persons turned against the Company. This is why the deposed landlords were the standard bearers of the war of Independence.

1 comment: