Hierarchy of Computer Languages

Hierarchy of Computer Languages Points : what is hierarchy of computer languages? briefly explain the characteristics of a high level programming language, advantages of high level language, disadvantage of high level language
Programming Language Naturally a language is the source of communication between two persons and also between the person to machine like computer. The language we can use to communicate with the computer are known as Computer programming languages.

Generally there are two major types of languages are available as follows:
1. Low Level Language The sets of commands available in low level language is complex and not easy to understand. In this category “Assembly” and “Machine codes” are available. Assembly programs are faster than other high level languages programs.

Top-Down Programming

Top-Down Programming Points : top-down programming, what is meant by top-down programming, how does top-down program work, disadvantages of top-down programming Top-Down Programming Top-down programming is the opposite of bottom up programming. It refers to the style of programming where an application is constructed starting with a high level description of what it is supposed to do and breaking the specification down into simpler pieces, until a level has been reached that correspond to the primitives of the programming language to be used. How does Top-down Program Work Top down programming (TDP) tends to generate modules that are based on functionally, usually in the form of functions or procedures typically the high level specification of the system states functionality. The high level- description is the refined to be a sequence or a loop of simpler function or procedures, that are then themselves redefine.

Early Computing Machines and Their Inventors

Early Computing Machines and Their Inventors Points : early computing machines and their inventors, define the early computing machines and their inventors, abacus pascal’s calculator, babbage difference engine, babbage analytical engine, dr. herman hollerith punch curd machine, mark i, enivac, edvac, univac-i Abacus Abacus is a wooden rack holding two horizontal wires with beads strung on them when these beads are moved around, according to programming rules memorized by the user, all regular arithmetic problems can be done. Pascal’s Calculator Braise Pascal, a French Mathematician and Philosopher, invented the first mechanical digital calculator, which could perform addition and subtraction on whole numbers. Pascaline developed around 1642. It was cheaper to have human labor perform the calculations, workers feared losing their jobs, and only Pascal could repair the machine. A programming language Pascal was later named to honour his contribution.

Advantages and Disadvantages of Punched Card

Advantages and Disadvantages of Punched Card Points : Advantages and Disadvantages of Punched Card Advantages 1. Punched cards are fairly inexpensive.
2. Data entry using Hollerith card is relatively fast, modern card readers can easily read 600 card per minute.
3. Punched cards may be stored and reared if the need arise.
Distinguish between the following a. Computer and Calculator
b. Microprocessor and Micro Computer
c. Second Generation and Third Generation of computer
Points : difference between computer and calculator, difference between microprocessor and micro computer, difference between second generation and third generation of computer
Difference between Computer and Calculator
1.Computer can accept and operate alphabetic data.Calculator can not accept alphabetic data.
2.Computer has large memory for storing programs and data.Calculator has small memory.
3.Computer has internal storage.It has very small internal storages as compared to computer.

Characteristics Four Generations of Computer

Characteristics Four Generations of Computer Points : explain what electronic technology characteristics each of the four generations of computer contained Vacuum Tubes: (1st Generation of Computer) Vacuum tubes are used as internal component in first generation. Lot of heat d by vacuum tubes. Size of computer was very larger.

'H' idioms and phrases with urdu meaning

Idioms and Phrases beginning with 'H'

Idioms and Phrases With Urdu Meaning

Habit of mindذہنی اختراعSomething or the other is always a habit of mind in every human being.
To get into a habitعادی ہو جاناHis hobby of drinking has resulted in getting into a habit.
Within hailاتنا نزدیک کہ جسے بلایا جا سکےHe is standing within a hail distance.
Lose one’s hairناراض ہوجاناIf someone cracks a joke, don’t lose your hair.
Make one’s hair stand on endبہت حیرانگی یا ڈر ظاہر کرناThe murder of his lieutenant made his hair stand on end.
Not to turn a hairپریشان نہ ہوناHe did not turn a hair when his friend died.
Put up the haltبال بناناMaidens p1st up their hair.